Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment in Psychiatry

Epidemiology of Anxiety Disorders - Conclusion

The authors would like to end by the beginning, referring to the caveats in the introduction of the present chapter. There are still other matters of concern: the frequent use of lay interviewers in major surveys, recall bias in interviews over lifetime span, the key issue of defining a threshold for clinical significancy, just to name a few.
It follows that in spite of the apparent evidence, extreme caution should be exercised when interpreting the epidemiology of anxiety.

Acierno R, Kilpatrick DG, Resnick HS (1999) Posttraumatic stress disorder in adults relative to criminal victimization: Prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity. In Saigh PA, Bremner JD et al. (eds) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Comprehensive Text. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc., pp. 44 - 68.
American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd revised edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Amering M, Bankier B, Berger P, Griengl H, Windhaber J, Katschnig H (1999) Panic disorder and cigarette smoking behaviour. Compr Psychiatry 40: 35 - 38.
Andrade L, Eaton WW, Chilcoat H (1994) Lifetime comorbidity of panic attacks and major depression in a population-based study: Symptom profiles. Br J Psychiatry 165: 363 - 369.
Angst J, Merikangas KR, PreisigM(1997) Subthreshold syndromes of depression and anxiety in the community. J Clin Psychiatry 58 Suppl 8: 6 - 10.
Antony MM, Roth D, Swinson RP, Huta V, Devins GM (1998) Illness intrusiveness in individuals with panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or social phobia. J Nerv Ment Dis 186: 311 - 315.
Bebbington PE (1998) Epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 1998; 35: 2 - 6.
Biber B, Alkin T (1999) Panic disorder subtypes: differential responses to CO2 challenge. Am J Psychiatry 156: 739 - 744.
Bienvenu OJ and Eaton WW (1998) The epidemiology of blood-injection-injury phobia. Psychol Med 28: 1129 - 1136.
Bienvenu OJ, Nestadt G, EatonWW(1998) Characterising generalised anxiety: Temporal and symptomatic thresholds. J Nerv Ment Dis 186: 51 - 56.
Black DW, Noyes R (1990) Comorbidity and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In Maser JD, Cloninger CR (eds) Comorbidity of Mood and Anxiety Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc., pp. 305 - 316.
Brawman-Mintzer O, Lydiard RB (1996) Generalised anxiety disorder: Issues in epidemiology. J Clin Psychiatry 57 Suppl 7: 3 - 8.
Brawman-Mintzer O, Lydiard RB, Naresh E, Payeur R, Johnson M, Roberts J, Jarrell MP, Ballenger JC (1993) Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Am J Psychiatry 150: 1216 - 1218.
Bremner JD, Southwick SM, Darnell A, Charney DS (1996) Chronic PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans: course of illness and substance abuse. Am J Psychiatry 153: 369 - 375.
Breslau N, Klein DF (1999) Smoking and panic attacks: An epidemiological investigation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56: 1141 - 1147.
Candilis PJ, McLean RY, Otto MW, Manfro GG, Worthington JJ 3rd, Penava SJ, Marzol PC, Pollack MH (1999) Quality of life in patients with panic disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 187: 429 - 434.
Candilis PJ, Pollack MH (1997) The hidden costs of untreated anxiety disorders. Harv Rev Psychiatry 5: 40 - 42.
Castle DJ, Deale A, Marks IM (1995) Gender differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 29: 114 - 117.
Chapman TF, Fyer AJ, Mannuzza S, Klein DF (1993) A comparison of treated and untreated simple phobia. Am J Psychiatry 150: 816 - 818.
Costa E, Silva JA (1998) The public health impact of anxiety disorders: A WHO perspective. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 393: 2 - 5.
Crino R, Andrews G (1996) Obsessive-compulsive disorder and axis I comorbidity. J Anx Dis 10: 37 - 46.
Curtis GC, Magee WJ, Eaton WW, Wittchen HU, Kessler RC (1998) Specific fears and phobias: Epidemiology and classification. Br J Psychiatry 173: 212 - 217.
Davidson JR, Connor KM (1999) Management of posttraumatic stress disorder: Diagnostic and therapeutic issues. J Clin Psychiatry 60 Suppl 18: 33 - 38.
Davidson JR, Hughes DL, George LK, Blazer DG (1993) The epidemiology of social phobia: Findings from the Duke Epidemiological Catchment Area Study. Psychol Med 23: 709 - 718.
Eaton WW, Kessler RC, Wittchen HU, Magee WJ (1994) Panic and panic disorder in the United States. Am J Psychiatry 151: 413 - 420.
Essau CA, Conradt J, Petermann F (1999) Frequency of panic attacks and panic disorder in adolescents. Depress Anxiety 9: 19 - 26.
Faravelli C, Paterniti S, Scarpato A (1995) 5-year prospective, naturalistic follow-up study of panic disorder. Compr Psychiatry 36: 271 - 277.
Fischler B, Cluydts R, De Gucht Y, Kaufman L, De Meirleir K (1997) Generalised anxiety disorder in chronic fatigue syndrome. Acta Psychiatr Scand 95: 405 - 413.
Fyer, A.J. (1998) Current approaches to aetiology and pathophysiology of specific phobia. Biol Psychiatry 44: 1295 - 1304.
Goisman RM, Allsworth J, Rogers MP, Warshaw MG, Goldenberg I, Vasile RG, Rodriguez- Villa F, Mallya G, Keller MB (1998) Simple phobia as a comorbid anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety 7: 105 - 112.
Goisman RM, Warshaw MG, Peterson LG, Rogers MP, Cuneo P, Hunt MF, Tomlin- Albanese JM, Kazim A, Gollan JK, Epstein-Kaye T et al. (1994) Panic, agoraphobia, and panic disorder with agoraphobia: Data from a multicentre anxiety disorders study. J Nerv Ment Dis 182: 72 - 79.
GoodmanWK(1999) Obsessive-compulsive disorder: diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 60 Suppl 18: 27 - 32.
Greenberg PE, Sisitsky T, Kessler RC, Finkelstein SN, Berndt ER, Davidson JR, Ballenger JC, Fyer AJ (1999) The economic burden of anxiety disorders in the 1990s. J Clin Psychiatry 60: 427 - 435.
Hirschfeld RM (1996) Panic disorder: Diagnosis, epidemiology, and clinical course. J Clin
Psychiatry 57 Suppl 10: 3 - 8; discussion 9 - 10.
Hollander E (1997) Obsessive-compulsive disorder: The hidden epidemic. J Clin Psychiatry 58 Suppl 12: 3 - 6.
Horwath E, Lish JD, Johnson J, Hornig CD, Weissman MM (1993) Agoraphobia without panic: clinical reappraisal of an epidemiological finding. Am J Psychiatry 150: 1496 - 1501.
Hunt C, Andrews G (1995) Comorbidity in the anxiety disorders: The use of a life-chart approach. J Psychiatr Res 29: 467 - 480.
Kasper S (1998) Social phobia: The nature of the disorder. J Affect Disord 50 Suppl 1: S3 - 9.
Katerndahl DA, Realini JP (1999) Relationship between substance abuse and panic attacks. Addict Behav 24: 731 - 736.
Kendler KS (1996) Major depression and generalised anxiety disorder: Same genes, (partly) different environments-revisited. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 1996; (30): 68 - 75.
Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Eshleman S, Wittchen HU,
Kendler KS (1994) Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51: 8 - 19.
Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB (1995) Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52: 1048 - 1060.
Kessler RC, Stang P, Wittchen HU, Stein M, Walters, EE (1999) Lifetime comorbidities between social phobia and mood disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey. Psychol Med 29: 555 - 567.
Kessler RC, Stang PE, Wittchen HU, Ustun TB, Roy-Burne PP, Walters EE (1998a) Lifetime panic-depression comorbidity in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55: 801 - 808.
Kessler RC, Stein MB, Berglund P (1998b) Social phobia subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Psychiatry 55: 613 - 619.
Klein DF, Klein HM(1989) The utility of the panic disorder concept. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 238: 268 - 279.
Klerman GL, Weissman MM, Ouellette R, Johnson J, Greenwald S (1991) Panic attacks in the community: Social morbidity and health care utilisation. JAMA 265(6): 742 - 746.
Le´pine JP, Lellouch J (1995) Classification and epidemiology of social phobia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 244: 290 - 296.
Le´pine JP, Pe´lissolo A (1996) Comorbidity and social phobia: Clinical and epidemiological issues. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 11 Suppl 3: 35 - 41.
Le´pine JP, Pe´lissolo A (1998) Social phobia and alcoholism: A complex relationship. J Affect Disord 50 Suppl 1: S23 - 28.
Liebowitz MR (1997) Panic disorder as a chronic illness. J Clin Psychiatry 58 Suppl 13: 5 - 8.
Liebowitz MR (1999) Update on the diagnosis and treatment of social anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 60 Suppl 18: 22 - 26.
Lydiard RB (1991) Coexisting depression and anxiety: Special diagnostic and treatment issues. J Clin Psychiatry 52 Suppl: 48 - 54.
Maes M, Delmeire L, Schotte C, Janca A, Creten T, Mylle J, Struyf A, Pison, G, Rousseeuw PJ (1998) Epidemiologic and phenomenological aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder: DSM-III-R diagnosis and diagnostic criteria not validated. Psychiatry Res 81: 179 - 193.
Magee WJ, Eaton WW, Wittchen HU, McGonagle KA, Kessler RC (1996) Agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53: 159 - 168.
Marshall JR (1997) Alcohol and substance abuse in panic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 58 Suppl 2: 46 - 49; discussion 49 - 50.
Martin P (1998) Medico-socio-economic impact of anxiety disorders. Encephale 24: 280 - 296.
McCauley J, Kern DE, Kolodner K, Dill L, Schroeder AF, DeChant HK, Ryden J, Derogatis
LR, Bass EB (1997) Clinical characteristics of women with a history of childhood abuse: unhealed wounds. JAMA 277(17): 1362 - 1368.
Merikangas KR, Angst J, Eaton W, Canino G, Rubio-Stipec M, Wacker H, Wittchen HU, Andrade L, Essau C, Whitaker A, Kraemer H, Robins LN, Kupfer DJ (1996) Comorbidity and boundaries of affective disorders with anxiety disorders and substance misuse: Results of an international task force. Br J Psychiatry 30 Suppl: 58 - 67.
Merikangas KR, Mehta RL, Molnar BE, Walters EE, Swendsen JD, Aguilar-Gaziola S, Bijl R, Borges G, Caraveo-Anduaga JJ, DeWit DJ, Kolody B, Vega WA, Wittchen HU, Kessler
RC (1998) Comorbidity of substance use disorders with mood and anxiety disorders:
Results of the International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology. Addict Behav 23: 893 - 907.
Milanfranchi A, Marazziti D, Pfanner C, Presta S, Lensi P, Ravagli S, Cassano GB (1995)
Comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Focus on depression. Eur Psychiatry 10: 379 - 382.
Montgomery SA (1998) Implications of the severity of social phobia. J Affect Disord 50 Suppl 1: S17 - 22.
Moore MC, Zebb BJ (1999) The catastrophic misinterpretation of physiological distress. Behav Res Ther 37: 1105 - 1118.
Moutier CY, Stein MB (1999) The history, epidemiology, and differential diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 60 Suppl 9: 4 - 8.
North CS, Nixon SJ, Shariat S, Mallonee S, McMillen JC, Spitznagel EL, Smith EM (1999)
Psychiatric disorders among survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing. JAMA 282: 755 - 762.
Noyes R Jr, Reich J, Christiansen J, Suelzer M, Pfohl B, Coryell WA (1990) Outcome of panic disorder: Relationship to diagnostic subtypes and comorbidity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 47: 809 - 818.
Pe´lissolo A, Le´pine JP (1998) Epidemiology of depression and anxiety disorders. In Montgomery
SA, Den Boer JA (eds) SSRIs in Depression and Anxiety (pp 1 - 21). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Perna G, Bertani A, Politi E, Colombo G, Bellodi L (1997) Asthma and panic attacks. Biol Psychiatry 42: 625 - 630.
Pfefferbaum B (1997) Posttraumatic stress disorder in children: a review of the past 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36: 1503 - 1511.
Pigott TA (1998) Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Symptom overview and epidemiology. Bull Menninger Clin 62: A4 - 32.
Pohl R, Yeragani VK, Balon R, Lycaki H, McBride R (1992) Smoking in patients with panic disorder. Psychiatry Res 43: 253 - 262.
Pollack MH, Otto MW (1997) Long-term course and outcome of panic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 58 Suppl 2: 57 - 60.
Pollack MH, Smoller JW (1995) The longitudinal course and outcome of panic disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am 18: 785 - 801.
Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL (1992) The epidemiology and differential diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 53 Suppl: 4 - 10.
Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL (1994) The epidemiology and differential diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 55 Suppl: 5 - 10.
Regier DA, Farmer ME, Rae DS, Locke BZ, Keith SJ, Judd LL, Goodwin FK (1990a)
Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. JAMA 264: 2511 - 2518.
Regier DA, Narrow WE, Rae DS (1990b) The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) experience. J Psychiatr Res 24 Suppl 2: 3 - 14.
Regier, DA, Rae DS, Narrow WE, Kaelber CT, Schatzberg AF (1998) Prevalence of anxiety disorders and their comorbidity with mood and addictive disorders. Br J Psychiatry 34 Suppl: 24 - 28.
Ricciardi JN, Baer L, Jenike MA, Fischer SC, Sholtz D, Buttolph ML (1992) Changes in DSM-III-R axis II diagnoses following treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 149: 829 - 831.
Roy-Byrne PP (1996) Generalized anxiety and mixed anxiety-depression: Association with disability and health care utilisation. J Clin Psychiatry 57 Suppl 7: 86 - 91.
Sanderson WC, Wetzler S, Beck AT, Betz F (1994) Prevalence of personality disorders among patients with anxiety disorders. Psychiatry Res 51: 167 - 174.
Sartorius N, Ustun TB, Lecrubier Y, Wittchen HU (1996) Depression comorbid with anxiety: Results from the WHO study on psychological disorders in primary health care. Br J Psychiatry 30 Suppl: 38 - 43.
Sasson Y, Zohar J, Chopra M, Lustig M, Iancu I, Hendler T (1997) Epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A world view. J Clin Psychiatry 58 Suppl 12: 7 - 10.
Schneier FR, Johnson J, Hornig CD, Liebowitz MR, Weissman MM (1992) Social phobia:
Comorbidity and morbidity in an epidemiological sample. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49: 282 - 288.
Skoog G, Skoog I (1999) A 40-year follow-up of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56: 121 - 127.
Smoller JW, Simon NM, Pollack MH, Kradin R, Stern T (1999) Anxiety in patients with pulmonary disease: Comorbidity and treatment. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry 4: 84 - 97.
Stein MB, Chavira DA (1998) Subtypes of social phobia and comorbidity with depression and other anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord 50 Suppl 1: S11 - 16.
Stein MB, Tancer ME, Uhde TW (1990) Major depression in patients with panic disorder:
Factors associated with course and recurrence. J Affect Disord 19: 287 - 296.
Stoudemire A (1996) Epidemiology and psychopharmacology of anxiety in medical patients. J Clin Psychiatry 57 Suppl 7: 64 - 72, 73 - 75.
Swendsen JD, Merikangas KR, Canino GJ, Kessler RC, Rubio-Stipec M, Angst J (1998) The comorbidity of alcoholism with anxiety and depressive disorders in four geographic communities. Compr Psychiatry 39: 176 - 184.
Van Ameringen M, Mancini C, Styan G, DonisonD (1991) Relationship of social phobia with other psychiatric illness. J Affect Disord 21: 93 - 99.
Verburg C, Griez E, Meijer J (1994) A 35% carbon dioxide challenge in simple phobias. Acta Psychiatr Scand 90: 420 - 423.
Verburg K, Griez E, Meijer J, Pols H (1995) Respiratory disorders as a possible predisposing factor for panic disorder. J A.ect Disord 33: 129 - 134.
Weiller E, Bisserbe JC, Boyer P, Le´pine JP, Lecrubier Y (1996) Social phobia in general health care: An unrecognised undertreated disabling disorder. Br J Psychiatry 168: 169 - 174.
Weinstock LS (1999) Gender differences in the presentation and management of social anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 60 Suppl 9: 9 - 13.
Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GJ, Faravelli C, Greenwald S, Hwu HG, Joyce PR, Karam EG, Lee CK, Lellouch J, Le´pine JP, Newman SC, Oakley-Browne MA, Rubio-
Stipec M, Wells JE, Wickramaratne PJ, Wittchen HU, Yeh EK (1997) The cross-national epidemiology of panic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54: 305 - 309.
Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GJ, Greenwald S, Hwu HG, Lee CK, Newman SC,
Oakley-Browne MA, Rubio-Stipec M, Wickramaratne PJ et al. (1994) The cross national epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: The Cross National Collaborative Group. J Clin Psychiatry 55 Suppl: 5 - 10.
Wetzler S, SandersonW(1995) Comorbidity of panic disorder. In Asnis G, van Praag H (eds)
Panic Disorder: Clinical, Biological and Treatment Aspects. New York: Wiley, pp. 80 - 98.
Widom CS (1999) Posttraumatic stress disorder in abused and neglected children grown up. Am J Psychiatry 156: 1223 - 1229.
Wingate BJ, Hansen-Flaschen J (1997) Anxiety and depression in advanced lung disease. Clin Chest Med 18: 495 - 505.
Wittchen HU, Essau CA (1993) Epidemiology of panic disorder: Progress and unresolved issues. J Psychiatr Res 27 Suppl 1: 47 - 68.
Wittchen HU, Essau CA, Von Zerssen D, Krieg JC, ZaudigM (1992) Lifetime and six-month prevalence of mental disorders in the Munich Follow-Up Study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 241: 247 - 258.
Wittchen HU, Reed V, Kessler RC (1998) The relationship of agoraphobia and panic in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55: 1017 - 1024.
Wittchen HU, Zhao S, Kessler RC, Eaton WW (1994) DSM-III-R generalised anxiety disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51: 355 - 364.
Wolfe J, Erickson DJ, Sharkansky EJ, King DW, King, LA (1999) Course and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder among Gulf War veterans: A prospective analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 67: 520 - 528.
Woodman CL, NoyesR Jr, Black DW, Schlosser S, Yagla SJ (1999) A 5-year follow-up study of generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 187: 3 - 9.
Zandbergen J, Bright M, Pols H, Fernandez I, De Loof C, Griez EJ (1991) Higher lifetime prevalence of respiratory diseases in panic disorder? Am J Psychiatry 148: 1583 - 1585.
Zaubler TS, KatonW(1998) Panic disorder in the general medical setting. J Psychosom Res 44: 25 - 42.
Zimmerman M, Mattia JI (1999) Is posttraumatic stress disorder underdiagnosed in routine clinical settings? J Nerv Ment Dis 187: 420 - 428.

Latest entries

  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

  Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

  Specific Phobias

  Social Phobias

  Epidemiology of Anxiety Disorders Introduction

  Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

Copyright © 2004-2005 All Rights Reserved.